TermMeaning
2-pinnatesee bipinnate
abaxialfacing away from the axis; hence abaxially; used of leaf surface.
abbreviatedshortened.
aberrantdeparting from the normal.
abortedimperfectly developed.
abscissingfalling off; often used of floral parts, hence abscission.
abscissionthe normal shedding of mature or aged organs from a plant.
acaulescent, acaulouslacking a distinct stem.
accrescentenlarging toward maturity, as of calyx after flowering.
accumbentlying closely face to face; a radicle lying against the edges of a cotyledon.
acentricnot located at the centre.
acerosenarrow, with a sharp, stiff point.
achenea small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit with thin pericarp.
acicle, aciculaneedle-shaped process; hence acicular.
acicularhaving a needle-shaped tip.
acropetalproduced in succession towards the tip.
acroscopicof a pinna or lobe pointing toward the apex.
actinomorphicwith the parts radially symmetrical, regular; as of flowers.
acuminatetapering to a fine point.
acutesharply pointed.
adaxialfacing towards the axis; hence adaxially; used of leaf surface.
adherentseparate parts or organs touching or in union, but not fused.
adjacentlying near, next to.
adnateunited to an organ of a different kind; as sepals to petals.
adventitiousarising from an unusual position, as of roots.
adventivearriving from outside; in contrast to native.
aerialarising in the air, as roots from branches.
aestivationthe arrangement of perianth parts in the bud; see imbricate, valvate.
agamospeciesmicrospecies reproducing by apomixis.
ala(-ae)a wing; used in special sense for lateral petals in legumes.
alatewinged.
allopatricof taxa having different ranges of distribution
allopolyploida polyploid derived from a hybrid between two or more taxa.
alluvialof deposits of earth, sand, etc., left by water.
alpinean altitudinal zone extending upwards from the upper treeline .
alternateplaced singly along an axis, not in opposite pairs; hence alternately.
alveola(-ae)deep, close pits; hence alveolate.
alveolatedeeply pitted, honey-combed.
amphibiousliving on both land and in water.
amphitropousof ovules, retaining an essentially straight axis but turned through 90° on and fused with funiculus.
amplexicaulclasping the stem.
ampliateenlarged.
anadromicwith the first vein or pinnule of a pinna on the side towards the apex.
anastomosingjoining to form a network, as of nerves or veins.
anatomythe study of internal structure.
anatropousof ovules, turned through 180° and with funiculus fused along one side and micropyle close to placental surface.
ancipital2-edged, used especially of flattened stems.
androeciummale organs of a flower, i.e. stamens with their filaments, and anthers.
androgynophorea stalk bearing both stamens and pistil above the point of perianth attachment.
androgynouswith male and female flowers in the same inflorescence; male above female (in Carex).
andromonoeciouswith male and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant.
androphorea stalk bearing the stamens.
anemophilouswind-pollinated.
angustatenarrowed gradually and concavely to the base.
angustiseptateof a flattened 2-locular capsule (or silique) with the septum across the narrow diameter.
anisophyllouswith leaves of a pair differing markedly in shape or size.
annualcompleting its life-cycle within one year.
annularring-shaped.
annulusa ring; particularly the ring of thick-walled cells in a fern sporangium forming part of the dehiscence mechanism.
anterioron the side away from the axis and thus appearing at the front.
antherthe pollen-bearing part of a stamen.
antheridium(-ia) in cryptogams, the organs producing ? gametes.
anther-tailan elongated outgrowth from the lower part of the anther-wall.
anthesisopening of floret to allow emergence of anthers and stigmas.
anthocarpan achene enclosed by the persistent base of the calyx.
anthocyaninpigment producing blue or purple coloration.
anthoecium(-ia)floral envelope of lemma and palea.
antipetalouspositioned opposite the petals; usually of stamens.
antisepalouspositioned opposite the sepals; usually of stamens.
antrorsedirected forward, usually of teeth or hairs.
apetalouswithout petals.
apetiolatewithout a petiole; hence apetiolulate, of leaflets.
apex(-ices)tip of an organ or part; hence apical, apically.
aphyllousleafless.
apiculateending in a short, slender, ± flexible point.
apiculusa short slender ± flexible point; hence apiculate.
apocarpoushaving free carpels.
apomictplant producing viable seed without fertilization; hence apomictic.
apomixisprocess of producing seeds without fertilisation; hence apomictic.
apophysisexposed, expanded, distal part of ovuliferous scale in female conifer cones.
appendagea secondary or subsidiary part of an organ; a special outgrowth.
appositeside by side.
appressedclosely and flatly pressed against a surface.
approximateclose together.
aquaticliving in water.
arborescenttree-like.
archegonium(-ia)in cryptogams, the organs producing female gametes.
arcuatecurved or arched, ± strongly.
areolatemarked out into small angular spaces.
areolea small delimited area, as the space between anastomosing veins; hence areolate.
arila fleshy or hardened outgrowth from the funicle, which covers or is attached to the mature seed; hence arillate.
arillateprovided with an aril.
aristaawn, as of lemma, sometimes borne on column; hence aristate.
aristateabruptly terminated in a hard, straight, subulate point (awned)
armaturecovering or occurrence of spines, hooks, or prickles; hence armed.
articulatejointed; with nodes of joints where parts may separate.
artificialmodified by humans.
ascendingdirected or rising upward obliquely.
aspergilliformdivided into several fine branches so as to resemble a brush; of stigma branches arranged in all directions.
asperousrough to the touch; hence asperities, asperulous.
asymmetriclateral halves of dissimilar shape.
attenuategradually tapering, drawn out.
auriclean ear-shaped appendage or lobe.
autogamousautomatic self-pollination within a flower.
autonyma name established automatically at the subdivision of a taxon, whether or not published at the same time.
autotrophicsee holophytic.
awna stiff or bristle-like projection, often from the tip or back of an organ.
awn columnthe base of an awn, of different form from the arista or bristle above.
awn sinusnotch in lemma whence the awn originates.
axesPlural of axis
axilthe upper angle between two dissimilar organs.
axileof the axis; especially of placentae attached to the axis of a several-loculed ovary.
axillaryoccurring in an axil between two parts, as of leaves or bracts.
axisthe main stem or central longitudinal support, as of an inflorescence.
baccateof fruit, berry-like, with pulpy mesocarp.
bambusiformhaving or resembling the habit of a bamboo.
barbretrorse projection, particularly on hairs; hence barbate.
barbedprovided with a sharp backwardly directed hook or bristle.
barreninfertile.
basalat the base; of leaves or sheaths, all arising from ground-level; of ovule(s), at base of ovary.
basifixedattached by the base; usually of anthers.
basiscopicof a pinna or lobe pointing toward the base.
bast fibrethe fibre of the phloem or inner bark.
beaka prominent extension of an organ; as of fruits.
beardshort stiff hairs usually surrounding the callus.
berrya fleshy fruit containing several to many seeds but not a "stone".
bi-a prefix meaning two.
biaristulatewith two short awns.
bicornute2-horned.
bicuspidhaving two sharp rigid points.
bidentatehaving two teeth.
bienniala plant which requires two years to complete its life-cycle.
bifacialof leaves, with distinct upper and lower surfaces.
bifariousarranged in two opposite rows.
bifiddivided into two parts; two-cleft.
bifurcateforked into two segments.
bilabiatewith two lips.
bilateraloccurring on both sides of an axis, as of bilateral racemes.
bilobedwith two lobes.
binateoccurring in pairs, growing from the same point.
bipartitedivided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnatetwice pinnate, with the primary pinnae divided to the midrib into secondary pinnae or segments.
bipinnatifid, 2-pinnatifidwith primary segments divided in a pinnate fashion into secondary segments, but neither divided to the midrib; cf. pinnate-pinnatifid.
biseriatearranged in two rows.
bisexualof flowers, with both sexes functional.
bivalvedhaving two valves.
bladethe lamina, or expanded part of a leaf.
blooma white or glaucous powdery covering.
boga wetland in which the water is derived only from rainfall, and is underlain by peat.
bolethe main trunk of a tree.
bossa ± rounded protuberance.
brackishpartly fresh, partly salt (of water).
bracta modified, often much-reduced leaf, especially the small or scale-like leaves of an inflorescence; diminutive bracteole; hence bracteate.
bracteatehaving a bract.
bractiformhaving the appearance of a bract.
bristlea stiff stout hair.
broadlyqualifying term used with elliptic, oblong, obovate, obtriangular, obtrullate, ovate, rhombic, triangular and trullate to indicate length:breadth 3:2 to 6:5.
buda much condensed, undeveloped shoot or flower.
buddinggrafting by inserting a bud under the bark of the stock; hence budded.
bulba thickened part made up of ± fleshy scales on a short axis; diminutive bulbil; hence bulbous.
bulbildiminutive of bulb; in cryptogams, a bud produced vegetatively on the stem or frond, capable of breaking off and forming a new plant.
bulboushaving a bulb.
bullatewith the surface blistered or puckered.
busha shrub with dense branches, resulting usually in dense habit.
caducousfalling off at an early stage; used of sepals and petals.
caespitosegrowing in ± dense tufts.
callicallus deposits, usually appearing as small coloured dots.
callusa thickened, usually hardened part.
calyculusa calyx-like part, composed of bracts or bracteoles; hence calyculate.
calyptratebearing a calyptra or cap-like covering.
calyptrum(-a)a hood or lid usually formed by the calyx and usually falling as a unit; hence calyptrate.
calyxthe outer, usually greenish, whorl of floral parts, consisting of free or united sepals.
cambiuma generative layer of thin cells whose divisions produce rows of vascular tissue cells or cork cells.
campanulatebell-shaped.
campylotropousof ovules, curved with the micropyle nearly meeting the funiculus.
canaliculatelongitudinally channelled or grooved.
canescentwith grey-white pubescence.
capa convex removable covering of a part; as of a capsule.
capillaryhair-like.
capitatehead-like; often used of inflorescence or stigma.
capitulum(-a)a dense head-like inflorescence of numerous sessile flowers.
capsulea dry dehiscent fruit formed by the union of two or more carpels.
carinaa keel; used in special sense for the joined anterior petals in Fabaceae; hence carinate, having a prominent sharp median projecting rib.
carinatekeeled, having a prominent, sharp, median projecting mid-rib.
carnivorousof plants that capture and absorb animals.
carpelone unit of the female part of the flower, consisting of ovule-bearing ovary, receptive stigma, and often a stalk-like style between them.
carpidium(-ia)"cone-scale" in Gymnospermae.
carpodium(-ia)abortive carpel.
carpophorea prolongation of the floral axis above the level of attachment of the perianth, either supporting the gynoecium or carrying the pendulous ripe mericarps.
cartilaginoustough and hard.
caruncleexcrescence of appendage near base of seed.
caryopsisa grain, as of grasses; a seed-like fruit with a thin pericarp adnate to the contained seed.
casualoccurring sporadically and not establishing.
catadromicwith the first vein or pinnule of a pinna on the side towards the base.
cataphylla modified leaf reduced to a short sheath or bract surrounding the base of extravaginal innovations or rhizomes.
catkina spike or spike-like inflorescence, usually unisexual, on a pendulous to erect axis.
caudatebearing a tail-like appendage.
caudexa stem with subsidiary organs, usually of herbaceous plants.
caulescentwith a stem; with thick trunk-like stem beneath a rosette.
cauliflorusproducing flowers from old wood, especially the trunk.
caulinebelonging to the stem, especially its upper aerial part.
caulorrhizawoody rootstock.
cellthe basic unit of plant structure consisting, when young of a protoplast surrounded by a wall, but often losing the living contents with age.
cernuousdrooping.
chaffythin, dry, membranous
chalazathe part of the ovule where the nucellus joins the integuments.
channelledhollowed out longitudinally like a gutter; canaliculate.
chartaceousof thin papery texture.
chasmogamousof flowers opening for pollination.
chlorophyllthe green colouring matter within the cells of plants.
choripetalouswith separate petals.
chromosomesmall deeply staining body found in all cell nuclei, the number usually constant for any given species.
ciliashort hairs forming a fringe usually on margin; hence ciliate, ciliolate.
ciliatefringed with short hairs.
cinereouslight ashy grey.
circinatecoiled, the apex innermost, as in young fern fronds.
circularround in outline.
circumscissiledehiscing as if cut circularly around, the top valve coming off like a lid.
cirrhosetendril-like, with a slender, ± coiled tip.
cladodea green flattened stem resembling a foliage leaf, but arising in the axil of a minute, bract-like, often caducous, true leaf.
clathratelatticed or pierced by apertures, like a trellis.
clavateclub-shaped; thickened towards the apex.
clawthe narrowed stalk-like base of a petal or sepal; hence clawed.
clawedhaving a narrowed stalk-like base to a petal or sepal.
cleftdeeply cut.
cleistogamyfertilisation without the opening of florets, always therefore self-fertilising; hence cleistogamous.
cleistogeneaxillary, hidden, seed-forming spikelets or reduced inflorescences usually at the base of culms and differing from aerial spikelets.
clonea vegetative propagule, genetically identical with the parent.
coalescentof the incomplete fusion of like parts.
coccus(-i)one of the parts of a dry lobed fruit, each part 1-seeded.
coenosorus(-i)a common or compound sorus formed by fusion of several sori.
coherentlike parts in close contact but not fused.
collarjunction of leaf-blade and leaf-sheath, anterior to ligule, often thickened.
collateralstanding side by side.
columnbody formed by the union of stamens, style and stigmas.
comaring or tuft of hairs, especially on a seed; hence comate.
comatehaving a tuft or ring of hairs, especially on a seed.
combinationthe name of a taxon below the rank of genus, consisting of the name of a genus combined with a specific, and sometimes infraspecific, epithet.
commissurethe face by which one carpel joins another.
compatibilitygenetic reaction between pollen and stigma; hence self-compatible, self-incompatible.
compoundcomposed of several ± similar parts, as opposed to simple; used of leaves and inflorescences.
compressedflattened.
concavehaving the surface curved inwards.
concolorousof ± the same colour throughout.
conduplicatefolded together lengthwise along midrib, with the upper surface within, as of leaf-blades.
conea general term for the hardened fructifications.
coneleta cone up to the time of fertilization.
confluentblending or running together as of nerves, sori, etc.
congenericbelonging to one and the same genus.
congestedcrowded.
conicala solid, with the shape of a geometrical cone.
connatejoined together, especially of two similar parts united; as perianth-segments.
connectivethe tissue connecting the two lobes of an anther.
conniventconverging together; usually of two or more organs with their bases separated and their apices approaching one another.
conspecificbelonging to one and the same species.
contiguoustouching but not fused.
continuouswithout breaks, uninterrupted.
contortedtwisted; of perianth parts in bud, each part with one edge overlapping, the other overlapped.
contractedof panicles with erect branches close to rachis or almost so.
contractilecapable of expanding and contracting, usually of roots.
contra-liguleline of hairs on the abaxial surface at junction of leaf-blade and leaf-sheath.
convexbulging outward.
convoluterolled together longitudinally, as of leaf-blades.
coralloidcoral-like, with many short, thick branchlets.
cordateheart-shaped, with the notch at the base.
coriaceousof somewhat leathery texture, tough.
corma short, swollen underground stem, usually erect and invested by a few scales and functioning for only one season; diminutive cormil; hence cormous.
cormoushaving a corm.
corollathe inner, usually showy, whorl of floral parts, consisting of free or united petals.
corollineseated on or belonging to the corolla.
coronaa crown-like appendage projecting upwards from the corolla, e.g. the cup in Narcissus.
corrugateevenly furrowed or wrinkled.
cortexthe outer layers of the stem.
corymba ± flat-topped raceme, the long-pedicelled outer flowers opening first; hence corymbose.
corymbosein the form of a flat-topped raceme
costa(-ae)a rib or mid-rib, especially of the leaf-blade; hence costal, costate.
costateribbed
cotyledonseed-leaf, present in the seed.
crenatewith shallow, rounded teeth, the sinus acute.
crepuscularoccurring in late afternoon and early evening, especially of flower opening.
crestan elevation or ridge at the summit of an organ.
crestedhaving an elevation or ridge at the summit of an organ.
crispatewith margins curled, irregularly waved and twisted.
cross-veineddivided into lattices by short septa, especially of leaves.
crownthe upper rosette of leaves of an arborescent species.
crownshafta trunk-like extension of the bole formed by the long, broad, overlapping leaf-bases.
crozieryoung uncurling fern frond.
cruciate, cruciformin the form of a cross.
crurashanks; used for the two small projections at the mouth of a utricle in Carex.
crustaceousof brittle texture.
cryptogamsgeneral term to include all plant groups except the seed-plants.
cucullatehooded or hood-shaped
culmflowering stem, usually comprising nodes, leaves and internodes.
culm-sheathsheath of a cauline leaf.
cultigena plant known only in cultivation.
cultivara variety, strain, selection or race that has originated and persisted under cultivation; subject to rules laid down in International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants.
cultrateshaped like a knife blade.
cuneatewedge-shaped; gradually and evenly narrowed to base; hence cuneiform.
cupa cup-like structure; diminutive cupule; hence cupuliform, cupular.
cupularcup-shaped
cuspwith the apex narrowed to a sharp rigid point; hence cuspidate.
cuspidatehaving the apex tapering gradually to a sharp rigid point.
cuticlethe outermost, ± impermeable layer on the epidermal cells.
cyathiuma cup-like structure, especially the perianth-like involucre surrounding flowers in Euphorbia.
cymbiformboat-shaped.
cymean inflorescence in which continued growth depends on the production of new lateral growing points; when these develop symmetrically the inflorescence tends to be broad and flattish with the oldest flowers innermost; hence cymose.
cymosewith an inflorescence in the form of a cyme.
cypselaan achene bearing an adnate calyx.
cytologythe study of the cell and especially of its chromosomes.
cytotaxonomyclassification of organisms based on cytology.
deciduousfalling after completion of the normal function, i.e. petals after flowering, or leaves of summer-green perennial.
declinatebent or curved downwards.
decompounddivided into many compound parts.
decumbentlying along the ground with the tip ascending.
decurrentrunning or extending downwards.
decurvedgradually curved downwards.
decussateof leaves or other organs that are opposite with successive pairs at right angles and so forming four rows.
definiteof a constant number, or of limited growth as a definite inflorescence where the axis ends in a flower.
deflexedbent sharply downwards.
dehiscentopening, usually regularly, to shed contents when ripe; hence dehiscing
dehiscingopening regularly to shed contents when ripe; used of anthers and capsules.
deltatebroadly triangular.
deltoida solid, triangular in transverse section.
dendroidresembling a tree in shape or mode of branching.
dentatewith sharp teeth perpendicular to the margins, the sinus ± open; diminutive denticulate.
denticlea very small tooth; hence denticulate, with very small sharp teeth perpendicular to the margin, the sinus ± open.
denticulatewith small sharp teeth perpendicular to the margin
depauperatereduced in size, as if starved.
depressedflattened from above.
determinateof an inflorescence in which the terminal flower opens first and growth of the axis is arrested.
diadelphousin two sets, as of stamens in most papilionoid legumes, where nine are united and one is free.
dichasiuma cyme in which the branches are opposite and ± equal in length.
dichlamydeousof flowers with a perianth composed of distinct calyx and corolla.
dichogamousearly maturity and exsertion of one sexual element; hence duodichogamy, two dichogamous events.
dichotomousforking into two equal branches.
dictyostelicused of a stem structure characterized by a network of vascular or conducting strands.
didymoustwinned, the two parts similar and attached by a short length of their inner surface.
didynamouswith four stamens, one pair long, one pair short.
diffuseof open or straggling growth.
digitatespreading from a centre like the fingers of a hand.
dilatedenlarged, or expanded, or widened.
dimidiateappearing as if one half were wanting.
dimorphicoccurring in two forms; as leaves of some aquatics, or fronds of ferns.
dioecioushaving ? and ? on different plants.
diploidhaving two sets of chromosomes (denoted as 2n).
disarticulationseparating at a joint, as of florets in a spikelet, leaf-blades at ligules.
disc, diska flattened, ± fleshy development of the receptacle or coalescent nectaries, or the non-ligulate part of the capitulum made up of tubular flowers in Asteraceae; hence discoid.
discoiddisc-shaped; used of corona in Narcissus.
discolorousof two different colours especially of upper and lower surfaces of leaves; see also heterochromous.
discreteseparate, not adherent or coherent.
disjunctused of plant distribution with large gaps between occurrences.
disk-floretsin Asteraceae, the inner florets of the capitulum as distinct from the surrounding ray-florets.
dispersalthe various ways by which fruits, seeds, whole plants, or portions of plants are scattered, by wind, water, birds, adhesion to animals, etc.
dissectedof leaf-laminae, cut into many segments.
distalat the free end of an organ as opposed to the attached or proximal end.
distantstanding apart, separated.
distichousarranged in two opposite rows so as to lie in one plane, used of leaves and glumes.
distyloushaving a floral dimorphism in which the anthers and stigmas vary in height between morphs so that the sequence of heights is different in each morph.
diurnaloccurring during the day, especially of flower opening.
divaricatespreading at a very wide angle.
divergentspreading away from one another, usually at a rather wide angle.
domatiasmall pits on the adaxial surface of leaves, between the veins and midrib or near the margin.
dormantnot in active growth.
dorsalrelating to the back or outer surface of a part or organ; hence dorsally.
dorsiconvexconvex on the back.
dorsifixedattached by the back, especially of anthers.
dorsiventralof an organ with both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as of a leaf-blade.
double-foldedused of a leaf of which the transverse section resembles an inverted W because of a prominent nerve on each side of the midrib.
drupea "stone fruit", the seed enclosed in a bony covering (endocarp) which is surrounded by a ± fleshy layer (mesocarp).
drupeletone small drupe of an aggregate fruit.
e-, or ex-prefix meaning lacking.
ebracteatewithout bracts.
ecalloselacking calli.
eccentricoffset from the centre; hence eccentrically.
echinatebeset with prickles.
ecostatelacking ribs.
ecotypethe genetical response of a plant to its environment; often simplistically treated as a morphological variant.
edentatelacking teeth.
effusespreading loosely.
eglandularlacking glands.
elaterslender thread-like or coiled body found in sporangia and connected with spore dispersal.
eligulatelacking ligules.
ellipsoida solid, elliptic in longitudinal section .
ellipticlonger than broad, broadest at the middle, rounded at both ends; length:breadth ratio 2.5:1 to 3:2.
elongatelengthened, stretched out.
emarginatewith a shallow notch at the apex.
embryothe rudimentary plant within the caryopsis.
emergentstems and/or leaves of aquatic plants emerging above the water surface.
emersedrising above surface of water.
endemichaving a natural distribution confined to a specific geographical region; here meaning occurring naturally only in the N.Z. Botanical Region or some part of it.
endocarpinner layer of the fruit-wall, sometimes stony, lying next to the seed.
endospermstarchy tissue of a caryopsis, mostly dry, sometimes doughy or liquid.
endosporicwith the gametophyte wholly or partly growing within the spore wall.
endothecialof the inner lining of the loculus of an anther.
ensheathedretained within leaf-sheath.
ensiformsword-shaped; straight-sided with an acute apex.
entirehaving a continuous margin not toothed or dissected; whole or unbranched.
entomophilouspollinated via insects.
epaleatelacking a palea.
epharmonea form that is assumed in response to certain environmental conditions and stable only as long as those conditions obtain; hence epharmonic.
ephemeralpersisting for a very short time; of a plant, for a very short season; of an organ, usually a day or less.
epicalyxa calyx-like structure immediately below the true calyx.
epicarpof fruits, the outer layer of the pericarp.
epicormicof buds and shoots developing from the trunk.
epicorollineinserted upon the corolla.
epicuticularseated, resting or deposited on the cuticle of any organ, especially of wax on culms and leaves.
epidermisthe outermost cell layer of most organs.
epigealabove ground, especially of cotyledons.
epigynousborne on the ovary; of a flower in which stamens and perianth arise level with or above the top of the ovary which is adnate to the surrounding receptacle.
epimatiumin Podocarpaceae, a scale ± fused with the integument and partly or completely surrounding the ovule.
epipetalousborne on the petals or corolla.
epiphytea plant growing upon another but not organically connected with it; hence epiphytic.
episepalousborne on the sepals or calyx.
equilateralhaving all sides equal.
equitantfolded over as if astride; or opposite leaves folded longitudinally and overlapping in their lower parts.
ericoidof habit or leaves, with small, crowded, ± narrow-linear leaves.
erosewith an irregular margin as if gnawed.
erubescentinclined  to be reddish.
escapea plant which has spread from cultivation.
espatheatelacking a spathe.
eusporangiatewith each sporangium originating from a group of cells, its wall more than one cell thick.
evanescentsoon vanishing; lasting a short time or running a short distance.
evergreenhaving leaves all through the year.
exarchused of vascular bundles in which the first-formed elements of the wood lie at the outside of the primary strand.
excurrentrunning out beyond the margin or apex.
exfoliatingpeeling off in strips or plates, as with bark from a trunk.
exindusiatewithout an indusium.
exinethe outer coat of a pollen grain.
exocarpthe outermost layer of the fruit-wall.
exosporicwith the gametophyte free-living, not enclosed by the spore wall.
exoticnot native; foreign.
explanatespread out, flattened.
exsertedprojecting, as the stamens beyond the corolla; not included.
exstipulatewithout stipules.
extravaginalbeyond or outside the sheath; applied to tillers in Carex which burst out through the basal sheaths.
extrorsedirected outwards; used of anther dehiscence.
eyea conspicuous spot, such as a differently coloured centre of the corolla.
facultativeoptional.
falcatestrongly curved; sickle-shaped.
familya group of one or more genera believed to be related phylogenetically, and morphologically separable from other such groups.
fanused of a leafy shoot with distichous, equitant leaves.
farinaa mealy covering; hence farinose.
farinosehaving a mealy covering.
fasciationan abnormal widening and flattening of the stem.
fasciclea close cluster or bundle.
fastigiatewith branches ± erect and close to the axis.
fellfieldopen, usually alpine vegetation, made up mostly of very low-growing plants; rather rocky places in mountains where such vegetation grows.
feltedmatted with intertwined hairs.
femaleplants or flowers bearing megagametophytes or ovules.
fenestratewith window-like openings or translucent areas; hence fenestrated.
ferruginousrust-coloured.
fertileproducing seed, spores or pollen capable of germination.
fibrillosefinely fibrous; covered with firm, thin fibres.
filamentousthread-like; very slender, but less so than capillary.
filiformthread-like.
fimbriahairs or processes forming a fringe; hence fimbriate, fringed.
fimbriatefringed.
fistulahollow centre of a cylindric culm; hence fistulate.
fistulatehollow
flabellatefan-shaped; hence flabelliform.
flaccidlimp, not rigid.
flagelliformlong and very slender, like a whip-lash.
flexiblecapable of being bent and restoring to original form.
flexuoushaving a wavy or zigzag form; as rhachis or branch of an inflorescence; hence flexuose.
floccoseclad in tufts of soft woolly hairs, usually easily removed.
floralof or pertaining to the flower.
floretlemma and palea with the enclosed flower.
floriferousflower-bearing.
flowera complex of organs performing the reproductive functions of a flowering plant, usually comprising one or more stamens and pistils, surrounded by a corolla and a calyx.
flushedof wet ground where water flows but not in a definite channel.
flutedof a perianth-tube with semi-cylindrical vertical grooves.
foetidhaving an offensive or strong odour.
foliaceousleaf-like.
foliosebearing numerous or crowded leaves.
folliclea dry, dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel, dehiscing along one side.
formaa minor variant of a species.
fornicateprovided with small scales in the corolla-tube, as in some species of Myosotis where the "scale" is an inpushing of the corolla.
foveaa depression or pit; hence foveate; diminutive foveolate.
foveatepitted; diminutive foveolate
freenot fused or united with similar organs, as of floral parts; not anastomosing, as of veins
free-centralof a placenta arising from the base of a 1-locular ovary but not touching the apex or the sides.
fronda leaf, used especially of ferns.
fruitthe ripened ovary containing the seeds; often used to include associated parts such as a fleshy receptacle.
fruticoseshrubby.
fugaceousfalling very early, as of some petals and sepals.
fugacious, fugitivefalling or withering away very early; used of sepals and petals.
fulvoustawny; dull yellow.
funicle, funiculusthe stalk of an ovule attaching it to the ovary wall or placenta.
funnelformwith the tube gradually widened upwards.
furcateforked.
furfuraceousscurfy; provided with soft scales.
furrowedwith ± parallel, usually longitudinal, grooves or channels.
fuscousof a brownish or greyish-brown colour.
fusiformspindle-shaped; a solid, swollen in the middle and narrowed to both ends.
galeaa hooded portion of a perianth, helmet-shaped; hence galeate.
galeatehelmeted.
galla swelling produced usually by an insect parasite.
gametophytethe haploid body produced by the germinating spore and bearing sexual organs; in lycopods and ferns a small separate plant.
gamopetalouswith the petals united, at least at the base.
gamophyllouswith leaves or floral units united by their edges.
gamosepalouswith the sepals united, at least at the base.
gelatinousjelly-like.
geminatetwinned; arranged in pairs.
gemma(-ae)asexual propagules, appearing like buds.
geniculatewith a knee-like bend; hence 1-geniculate, bigeniculate, trigeniculate, as of culms, awns, etc.
genotypegenetic constitution of an organism, or a particular form so determined.
genus(-era)one or a group of species believed to be phylogenetically and morphologically separable from other such groups.
geophyteherb with buds below the soil surface.
geotropicturning under the influence of gravity.
gibboussomewhat swollen on one side, resembling the ¾ phase of the moon, as of Nassella trichotoma caryopsis.
glabratealmost glabrous.
glabrescentbecoming glabrous.
glabrouswithout hairs.
gladiatesword-shaped .
glanda secreting organ or part, as of hairs; hence glandular.
glandularas of hairs, with a swollen head that secretes a sticky substance.
glaucousof a distinctly bluish-green colour, not necessarily due to a bloom.
globular, globosenearly spherical.
glochid(-ia)a small, barbed spine; hence glochidiate.
glochidiatehaving small, barbed spines.
glomeratecollected closely together into a head.
glomerulea very dense cluster; hence glomerate.
glumaceousglume-like, tending to be chaffy or membranous in texture.
glumea small chaffy or membranous bract, especially at the base of a grass spikelet or sedge flower; hence glumaceous.
glutinoussticky, or covered with sticky exudate.
gradatein steps; used of fern sori where the sporangia mature in regular succession from top to base of sorus.
granular, granulate, granulosecovered with small grain-like bodies.
gregariousgrowing in large colonies.
gynandroushaving the stamens adnate to the gynoecium as in orchids.
gynobasicof a style appearing to be inserted at the base of an ovary.
gynodioecioushaving ? and perfect flowers on separate plants.
gynoeciumthe female part of the flower made up of one or more carpels.
gynomonoecioushaving ? and ? flowers on the same plant.
gynophorea stalk raising the base of the ovary above the level of attachment of the androecium.
gynostegiuma column formed by the fusion of the stamens and the style and stigma; hence gynostegial.
habitthe general appearance of a plant.
habitatthe kind of place in which a plant grows.
haftthe narrow constricted portion of the perianth segment of Iris.
hairan outgrowth from the epidermis consisting of a single row of cells; may be branched or unbranched
halophytea plant growing within the influence of salt water.
haploidhaving a single set of chromosomes, the number typical of the mature germ cells of the organism (denoted as n).
hardyable to withstand cold temperatures, especially of frost-tolerance.
hastateshaped like an arrowhead, with the basal lobes pointed or narrow and spreading at a wide angle.
haustoriathe absorbing organs of a parasite or hemiparasite.
a short, dense inflorescence of sessile or almost sessile flowers.
helicoidcoiled; of a cyme branching repeatedly on the same side.
hemiparasitea plant attached to and deriving part of its nourishment from another living plant.
hemisphericof solid objects, like half a globe.
herbany vascular plant which is not woody; hence herbaceous.
herbaceousnon-woody; slightly fleshy
herbarium(-ia) a collection of dried or preserved plants, systematically arranged.
herbfieldvegetation, usually closed, in which herbaceous plants dominate.
hermaphroditehaving both stamens and carpels in the same flower.
hetero-prefix meaning dissimilar.
heteroblasticwith two (or more) distinct kinds of shoot; used especially when the shoots of the older plant differ from those of younger stages.
heterochromousof different colours, as of leaf-blades.
heterogamouswith two or more kinds of flowers.
heteromorphicwith two or more forms.
heterophyllousbearing leaves of two or more forms, especially of plants with aquatic and aerial leaves.
heterosporousproducing two or more kinds or sizes of spores.
heterostyloushaving a floral polymorphism in which the anthers and stigmas vary in height among morphs so that the sequence of heights is different in each morph; hence heterostyly.
heterotrophicof plants which are entirely saprophytic.
hexagonalhaving the form of a hexagon, with six angles and six sides.
hilumthe scar on a caryopsis, often punctiform or linear; hence hilar.
hippocrepiformhorseshoe-shaped.
hirsutewith rather rough or coarse hairs.
hispidbearing stiff, ± bristle-like hairs.
hoaryclad in close whitish hairs.
holophyticof plants maintained by own organs, not dependent on other plants for nutrition; free-living.
holotypethe one specimen, or illustration, used by the author, or designated by the author, as the nomenclatural type.
homochlamydeouswith the perianth parts similar.
homochromousof the same colour, as of surfaces of leaf-blades.
homogamouswith one kind of flower only.
homologousof the same origin, but often differing in form or function.
homomorphic of one form; cf. dimorphic.
homonyma name spelt exactly the same as another but applying to a different type specimen.
homosporousproducing spores of one kind or size only.
hoodedwith margins united for a very short distance below tip, as of leaf-blade, lemma.
horizontalpositioned at right angles to the main axis.
hornedbearing a horn-shaped structure.
hornyof horn-like texture.
hosta plant having a parasite living upon it.
huskan outer, usually loose, covering of some fruits.
hyalinethin and translucent.
hydathodea water-pore or structure which exudes water.
hydrophyticliving in water.
hygrochasticof a capsule opening when wet and closing when dry.
hypanthiuma cup-like structure produced by the fusion of the bases of the floral envelopes and androecium, often referred to as a calyx tube.
hypocotylthe axis of the seedling between the cotyledons and the root.
hypodermisthe layer of cells immediately under the epidermis.
hypogealespecially of cotyledons that do not appear above ground.
hypogynousborne below the ovary.
hypostasea support, e.g. the suspensor of an embryo.
imbricateoverlapping like roof-tiles.
immersed± imbedded.
imparipinnatepinnate with a single terminal pinna or leaflet.
imperfectsterile, as of florets.
impressedfurrowed as if by pressure.
inaequidistantunequally separated, as of nerves.
inaperturatewithout apertures, usually of pollen grains.
incertae sedisof uncertain position.
inciseddeeply cut
incisiona deep sharp cut; hence incised.
includednot protruded; as stamens not projecting from the corolla.
incompatiblegenetically determined failure of pollen grains to germinate on stigma; see also self-compatibility and self-incompatibility.
incrassatethickened, especially when also hard.
incumbentresting or leaning upon; of an anther, lying against the inner face of its filament.
incurvedbending from without inwards.
indehiscentnot opening to release it contents, except finally by decay.
indigenousnative to a particular area; not introduced.
indumentumused as a general term for a covering of hairs of any form.
induplicatewith the edges folded or turned in.
induratehardened and toughened.
indusium(ia)an outgrowth of tissue ± covering the sorus in ferns.
inferiorsituated below another organ or part; as in ovaries, surrounded by and fused with the receptacle and so below the insertion of the perianth.
inflatedswollen.
inflexedbent inwards, incurved.
inflorescencea general term for a collection of flowering parts, or for the arrangement of the flowers.
infructescencea general term for the fruiting structure formed from an inflorescence.
infundibuliformfunnel-shaped.
innovationsnew vegetative shoots at the base.
insectiformresembling the shape of an insect.
insertionattached to or growing upon; often the place or position of origin of an organ, as of awn on lemma.
insolatedexposed to the direct rays of the sun.
integumenta covering; used especially of the covering of the nucellus of an ovule.
interkeelarea between two keels, as of palea.
internervearea between nerves.
internodethe part of an axis between two nodes.
interpetiolarbetween the petioles; as in coalescent stipules of opposite leaves.
interruptedwith broken continuity.
interstitialplaced in the space between two other organs.
interveinalbetween the veins.
intramarginalposition just within the margin.
intrapetiolarposition on the inside of the petiole.
intrastaminalpositioned within the stamens, often of a floral disc.
intravaginalwithin the sheath; applied to tillers in Carex which grow up within the basal sheaths.
introducedof a species that is not native to the country but has been brought in by accident or design.
introgressioninfiltration of the genes of one taxon into the genotype of another through crossing and backcrossing.
introrsefacing inwards or towards the axis; as in anthers that open towards the centre of a flower.
invaginationthe pushing inwards of a layer of cells so as to form a pocket.
investedclothed.
investmentan enclosing covering or envelope; hence invested.
involucreone or more whorls of bracts, often ± calyx-like, surrounding an aggregation of flowers; hence involucral, involucrate.
involuterolled inwards, or to the upper (adaxial) side.
irregularof flowers that are not radially symmetrical; used here of flowers that are divisible into equal halves along one plane only.
irritablehighly responsive to touch.
iso-prefix meaning equal.
isobilaterallywith the two sides similar.
isodiametricwith vertical and horizontal diameters equal.
isomerouswith the numbers of parts equal, as when a flower has an equal number of sepals, petals, and stamens.
isotypea duplicate of the type specimen.
isozymethe product of a particular allele at a heterozygous locus.
jugateyoked together as a pair; used mainly of the pairs in a pinnate leaf.
junceousrush-like.
keela sharp central ridge, like the keel of a boat; hence keeled.
keeledsharply ridged.
kernelsofter, often edible, part within the shell or harder outer layer of a fruit.
labelluma lip.
labiatelipped; often applied to a calyx or corolla that is divided into two unequal parts.
lacerateirregularly torn or cleft.
laciniatedeeply, usually irregularly, divided into very narrow, pointed segments.
lactiferousproducing or bearing latex (milky sap).
lacunaa gap; hence lacunose.
lacunosepitted with shallow holes.
lamellateof placentation where a compound ovary comprises many carpels and the partitions have the ovules scattered over their surfaces.
lamina(-ae)the expanded portion or blade of a leaf; in ferns, from the apex to the junction of the lowermost pair of primary pinnae (pinnate frond), or to the lowermost green tissue (entire or pinnatifid frond).
lanatewoolly.
lanceolatelance-shaped; narrowly ovate, length:breadth 9:1 to 2.5:1.
lateralon or near the side; hence a side structure, e.g. nerve, branch.
latexmilky juice.
latiseptateof a flattened 2-locular capsule (or silique) with septum across the broad diameter.
laxloosely arranged or distantly placed.
layerstems covered with earth and then rooting; hence layering.
leadera vigorous dominant shoot.
leafan expanded organ produced laterally from the stem and usually comprising the blade (lamina), petiole and stipules.
leaf scarthe mark left by the articulation and fall of a leaf.
leaf-bladepart of leaf above the leaf-sheath; of varying shape and form, also known as the lamina.
leafleta single division of a compound leaf.
leaf-sheaththe lower part of the leaf surrounding a culm or innovation.
lectotypea specimen or other element selected from the original material to serve as a nomenclatural type when the type was not designated at the time of publication, or for so long as it is missing.
legumea simple, 1-celled and usually 2-valved fruit; also used as a name for members of the Fabaceae.
lemmalower of two bracts enclosing the flower, sometimes called flowering glume, of diverse shapes, division, and ornamentation.
lenticela corky spot on young bark functioning as a pore; hence lenticellate.
lenticularlens-shaped; shaped like a biconvex lens.
lepidoteclad in scurfy scales.
leptosporangiatewith each sporangium originating from a single superficial cell, its walls consisting of a single layer of cells.
lianea woody climbing plant.
ligneouswoody.
ligulatebearing a ligule; strap-shaped, narrowly oblong.
ligulethe thin scarious appendage at the junction of lamina and sheath of a leaf, sometimes reduced to hairs.
limbthe expanded part of a petal or sepal or spathe.
linearvery narrowly oblong, with parallel margins; length:breadth > 9:1.
lingulatetongue-shaped.
lipone of the two parts of a bilabiate calyx or corolla; also the labellum of an orchid flower.
littervegetable matter, ± decayed and associated with living plants.
littoralgrowing on shores.
lobea recognisable but not separated division, of petal, leaf etc., especially when rounded; hence lobed; diminutive lobule.
lobedwith recognisable, but not separate, often rounded divisions.
locule(s) a compartment or cavity of an organ, especially an ovary, fruit or anther; hence locular.
loculicidalopening into a locule; of dehiscence, by the splitting of the outer wall of each locule.
lodiculeminute scale subtending the stamens and gynoecium; hence lodiculate.
loessa fine grain deposit of yellowish grey loam, usually wind blown.
lomentaceousof a legume or pod strongly constricted between the seeds.
lomentuma legume or pod constricted between the seeds.
longitudinallengthwise.
lophateof pollen grains with polygonal lacunae enclosed by definite ridges.
loratestrap-shaped, narrowly oblong.
lowlandan altitudinal zone ± equating to sea level to ca. 500 m, with an upper limit define as the limit of epiphytic flowering plants.
lucidwith a shining surface.
lunatewith the shape of a crescent moon.
luriddingy brown or dull yellow.
lustrousglossy.
lyrateobovate with several deep recesses or sinuses on each side which gradually diminish in size to the base.
macrosporangiuma sporangium containing macrospores, the larger kind of spores in heterosporous plants.
maculatespotted or blotched with another colour.
maleplants, flowers, or flowering parts bearing the microgametophytes or pollen.
maleplants, flowers, or flower parts bearing the microgametophytes or pollen.
mammillatewith nipple- or teat-shaped projections.
mangrovesubtropical or tropical intertidal forest or scrub.
marcescentwithering without falling off; as petals.
massula(-ae)a rounded mass of hardened cytoplasmic foam containing one or more spores in Salviniaceae.
mattdull, without lustre.
mealycovered with or as if with a fine dust or powder.
medianbelonging to the middle; as median vein or nerve.
medifixedattached at the centre, especially of anthers and hairs.
megagametophytethe special tissue associated with the egg-cell.
megaphyllleaf with a branching vein system.
megasporangiuma sporangium containing macrospores, the larger kind of spores in heterosporous plants.
megasporethe larger kind of spore in heterosporous plants.
megasporophylla ± modified leaflike structure bearing megasporangia; in angiosperms the carpel.
membranousthin and ± pliable.
mentuma chin-like structure.
mericarpa dry 1-seeded part of a fruit, usually half of a schizocarp.
mesarchused of vascular bundles in which the first-formed elements of the wood lie in the middle of the primary strand.
mesocarpthe middle layer of a pericarp or fruit-wall.
mesophyllthe internal ground tissue of a leaf-blade.
microphyllleaf with an unbranched vascular strand, as in lycophytes.
micropylethe minute opening in the integuments of the ovule through which the pollen-grain or -tube enters.
microspeciesa species in a genus where numerous species are recognised by minor characters, the entities usually maintained only via apomixis or selfing.
microsporangiuma sporangium containing microspores, the smaller kind of spores in heterosporous plants.
microsporethe smaller kind of spore in heterosporous plants.
microsporophylla ± modified leaflike structure bearing microsporangia; in angiosperms the stamen.
mid-dorsalat the middle of a dorsal surface, as of awns; hence mid-dorsally.
midribthe main central nerve of a leaf or similar organ.
mitre-shapeda structure shaped like a tall bishop's cap.
mixedused of fern sori where the sporangia do not mature in any regular succession from top to base of the sorus.
monadelphousin one group, as of stamens all united by their filaments into a tube or column.
moniliformconstricted at short intervals and so appearing like a string of beads.
monoblasticwith only one kind of shoot; cf. heteroblastic.
monocarpicflowering and fruiting once, usually after several years, and then dying.
monochasialwith the form of a monochasium or 1-branched cyme.
monochasiuma 1-branched cyme, usually resulting from reduction of laterals, sometimes appearing raceme-like; hence monochasial.
monochlamydeoushaving only one series of perianth segments.
monoecioushaving unisexual flowers, male and female on the same plant.
monoletehaving a single scar or fissure on the spore wall, characteristic of bilateral pteridophyte spores.
monomorphicoccurring in one form only.
monopodiala stem with a single and continuous axis.
monostelichaving one stele or central cylinder of vascular tissue.
monostichousin a single vertical row.
monotypichaving only one representative; as a genus with only one species.
monstrosityhorticultural novelties resulting from abnormality of growth, e.g. double flowers.
montaneof mountains; altitudinal zone lacking flowering plant epiphytes, extending to upper treeline.
morpha discrete form, often with a genetical basis.
morphologythe study of form; hence morphologically, in respect of form.
mottledwith spots or blotches on a surface.
mouththe opening at the apex of a tube, particularly of corolla or calyx.
mucilagea viscous fluid; hence mucilaginous.
mucilaginousslimy or sticky
mucroa short sharp tip or excurrent midrib; hence mucronate.
mucronateabruptly terminated by a short sharp tip, or excurrent midrib.
multicipitalwith many heads, referring especially to the stock of a single root bearing many short branches.
multifariousmany-ranked.
multifidcleft into many lobes or segments.
multinodedhaving many nodes, especially of stems and culms.
multitubularmany-tubed.
muricaterough owing to many minute, hard outgrowths; diminutive muriculate.
muticouswithout a point, awnless, blunt.
mycorrhizaassociation of fungal mycelium with the roots of a higher plant.
nakedof a part lacking bracts or appendages; of a flower lacking a perianth.
napiformturnip-shaped.
narrowly-qualifying term used with elliptic, oblong, obovate, obtriangular, obtrullate, ovate, rhombic, triangular and trullate to indicate length:breadth 9:1 to 2.5:1.
nativenot known to have been introduced by human agency.
naturalisedthoroughly established, but originally coming from another area.
boat-shaped; hence naviculate.
nectarya gland exuding the sweet fluid called nectar; usually associated with flowers.
neotypea specimen or illustration selected to serve as a nomenclatural type as long as all the material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing.
nervea strand of conducting and usually strengthening tissue in a leaf or other structure; this term is used for longitudinal strands, the transverse ones in contrast being called veins; hence nerved.
neuterof a flower lacking functional sexual organs.
neuterof a flower lacking functional sexual organs.
nigrescentturning black.
nocturnaloccurring during the night, especially of flower opening.
nodea place on a stem marked by the attachment of one or more leaves.
nodoseknotty or knobby; diminutive nodulose.
nodulea small ± spherical swelling; hence nodular.
nomen nuduma bare name, i.e. one published without an accompanying description.
nomenclatural typesee holotype, lectotype, neotype.
nucellusthe inner tissue of an ovule, enclosing the embryo-sac and surrounded by the integuments.
nudebare, without secondary parts or organs.
nutan indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit with hard woody wall.
nyctinasticnocturnal folding of leaves or movement of other parts.
obconica solid, in the shape of an inverted geometric cone.
obdiplostemonouswith the stamens in two whorls, the outer opposite the petals, the inner opposite the sepals.
oblanceolatenarrowly obovate .
obligateof a plant not able to adopt a different habit, e.g. obligate apomict, obligate parasite.
obliquewith slightly unequal sides.
obloida solid, oblong in transverse section.
oblonglonger than broad, with parallel margins and rounded ends; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
obovatelonger than broad, broadest above the middle, rounded at both ends; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
obovoida solid, obovate in transverse section.
obpyramidala solid, like an inverted pyramid.
obsoleterudimentary, vestigial.
obtriangularlonger than broad, three-angled, broadest at the apex; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
obtrullateangular-obovate; longer than broad, broadest above the middle, but angular in outline; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
obtusewith a blunt apex, the converging edges separated by an angle > 90°.
ocellate, oculatehaving patches of colour ± resembling eyes.
ochraceousochre-coloured; dull yellow with tinge of red.
ochrea(-ae)a tubular sheath at the node formed by the fusion of two (usually membranous) stipules.
offseta short runner bending up and with a cluster of leaves at the tip, rooting and becoming a new plant.
offset bulbssmall bulbs which develop in the axils of the outer bulb scales.
olivaceousolive-green.
opaquenot translucent.
operculum(-a)a lid or cover separated by a ± circular line of division.
opposedplaced opposite another organ.
oppositeof a pair of organs arising at the same level on opposite sides of an axis.
oralat the mouth.
orbicularround in outline, with length equal to width.
orificethe mouth of a cavity.
ornamentationthe presence of hairs, teeth, prickles, cilia etc., on any organ.
orthotropousof ovules, with axis in a straight line with the funiculus, and so erect, the micropyle remote from the placenta.
osseousbony.
ostiolea small opening or mouth.
outcasta plant discarded from cultivation.
ovalelliptic.
ovarythe part of the gynoecium that encloses the ovules.
ovatelonger than broad, broadest below the middle, rounded at both ends; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
ovoida solid, ovate in transverse section.
ovulethe structure which contains the egg or female sex-cell and which, after fertilisation, develops into the seed.
pachymorphsympodial growth with short thick rhizomes.
pakihiopen or barren land; used especially of low-angled, poorly drained areas of the western South Island, usually on fluvio-glacial terraces, with a characteristic vegetation of shrub (especially Leptospermum) and rush-like plants (especially Empodisma and Baumea).
palatea prominent part enclosing the throat of a corolla.
paleathe upper of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
palmateof a leaf, divided into leaflets which arise at the same point.
palmatifid, palmatisectof a leaf, deeply, but not completely, divided into lobes which arise at the same point.
palynologythe study of pollen.
panduratefiddle-shaped, ± obovate but with a waist; = panduriform .
paniclean indeterminate branched inflorescence with the flowers pedicellate; hence paniculate.
paniculateof indeterminate growth and much branched.
pantropicalthroughout the tropics.
papilionaceousbutterfly-like; of a corolla with the parts in the form and arrangement of those of a sweet pea.
papillaeminute pimple-like processes; hence papillate, papillose.
papillate, papillosehaving papillae.
pappusa persistent calyx of special form crowning the achene of most Asteraceae; parts are usually numerous, simple or feathery hairs or bristles, or sometimes scales.
parallelogrammoidwith four sides, the opposite sides parallel.
paraphysessterile filaments, scales or hair-like structures of various shapes occurring amongst sporangia in a sorus.
parasitea plant attached to and deriving nourishment from another living plant; hence parasitic.
paratypea specimen cited with the original description other than the holotype, isotype(s) or syntypes.
parenchymatissue of thin-walled, little differentiated cells; hence parenchymatous.
parietalpertaining to the wall; placentation is parietal when the ovules are borne on the walls of the ovary or on minute projections therefrom.
paripinnateevenly pinnate, without a terminal leaflet.
partitedeeply divided almost to the base into segments.
patentspreading, usually ± horizontally.
pauci-prefix meaning few.
pectinatedivided in a comb-like manner with narrow, close-set teeth.
pedateof a palmate leaf with the leaflets divided again to the base.
pedatisectof a palmate leaf with the lateral leaflets incompletely divided.
pedicelthe stalk of an individual flower in a compound inflorescence; hence pedicellate, pedicelled.
pedunclethe stalk of a solitary flower or the main stalk of a compound inflorescence; hence pedunculate.
pelliclea thin skin-like covering.
pellucidclear, transparent or nearly so.
peltateshield-like, with a stalk attached well inside the margin.
pelviformbasin-shaped.
pendent, penduloushanging down from its support.
pendulousdrooping.
penicillateprovided with a brush-like tuft of hairs (often of anthers).
penninervedpinnately veined.
pentamerous, 5-merouswith organs or parts in fives.
percurrentextending throughout the entire length.
perennialwith a life-span of more than two years.
perfectof flowers with both male and female organs functional.
perfoliateof a sessile leaf or bract completely encircling the axis, so having the stem apparently passing through it.
perianththe floral envelopes considered as a whole; used especially when the calyx and corolla are not well differentiated in form, or when either one is absent.
pericarpthe wall of the ripened ovary, i.e. of the fruit.
perigynoussurrounding the ovary; of a flower in which perianth and stamens arise from the edge of a ± cup-shaped receptacle, surrounding but free from the ovary.
perispermfood reserve in a seed, formed from the nucellus.
perisporea membrane surrounding a spore.
persistentremaining attached, not falling off; as sepals, petals.
personateof a 2-lipped corolla, when the throat is almost closed by a palate.
perula(-ae)scales, usually those covering a seed or bud.
perulatebearing leaf bud scales, perulae.
petala unit of the corolla, when completely free; hence petaloid.
petaloidresembling a petal.
petiolatestalked (of leaves).
petiolethe stalk of a leaf; hence petiolate.
petiolulatestalked (of leaflets).
petiolulethe stalk of a leaflet; hence petiolulate.
phalangebundle; used of fruit developed from several fused carpels in Pandanaceae.
phanerogamsgeneral term to include all seed-plants.
phenotypethe sum of the characteristics manifested by an organism - varying as a result of the genotype or environment.
phyllaryan individual bract of an involucre.
phyllocladea ± flattened stem functioning as a leaf.
phyllodea widened petiole or rachis functioning as a leaf blade; hence phyllodinous.
phyllotaxythe arrangement of leaves or floral envelopes on an axis.
phylogenythe evolutionary development of a group, i.e. its derivation from its ancestors and relationships among its members; hence phylogenetic.
phytophagousplant-eating.
piliferousbearing hairs.
pilosebearing soft shaggy hairs.
pinna(-ae)the primary division of a pinnate leaf which may be further divided into secondary or tertiary pinnae, etc.
pinnate, 1-pinnatedivided to the midrib into separate primary pinnae or segments which are arranged either side of the axis; cf. bipinnate, tripinnate.
pinnate-pinnatifidwith primary pinnae themselves deeply divided, but not to the midrib, into secondary segments.
pinnatifiddeeply divided, but not to the midrib, in a pinnate fashion; cf. bipinnatifid, tripinnatifid, pinnate-pinnatifid.
pistilthe female part of a flower composed of one or more carpels and ordinarily differentiated into ovary, style and stigma.
pistillodea vestigial pistil present in some staminate flowers.
pitha soft spongy central tissue.
placentathe place or part in an ovary where the ovules are attached.
placentationthe arrangement of the placentae within the ovary, i.e. axile, free-central, parietal.
plano-having one surface flat, as in plano-compressed, plano-convex.
plasticinfluenced in form by the environment.
plateleta small undifferentiated plant body.
plicatefolded, as in a fan, or folded into pleats, usually lengthwise.
ploidyof the level of chromosome duplication.
plumosefeather-like.
plumulethe primary shoot-bud of an embryo.
pneumatophorespecialised root branch produced by some plants growing in water, especially mangroves, the branch erect and projecting into the air.
podogynea stalk carrying the gynoecium upwards from the centre of the flower.
pollenthe microspores of a flowering plant.
pollen-sterilepollen grains lacking cytoplasm and deemed incapable of germination, often of hybrids.
pollinationthe process by which pollen is transferred from anthers to stigmas.
pollinatoran agent used by a plant to achieve pollination and fertilization.
pollinium(-ia)a coherent mass of pollen.
polyadelphousin many sets, as of stamens grouped in several bundles.
polyandroushaving an indefinite number of stamens.
polygamo-dioeciousof a species that is mainly dioecious, but includes plants bearing a few flowers of the opposite sex, or sometimes a few perfect flowers.
polygamousbearing unisexual and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphichaving more than two distinct morphological forms.
polypetalouswith a corolla of free petals.
polyphyleticof a group of taxa classified together even though some have quite distinct evolutionary histories.
polyploidhaving a chromosome complement of two or more times the normal diploid number.
polyporatehaving many pores; especially of pollen grains.
polysepalouswith a calyx of free sepals.
polystelichaving more than one stele or central cylinder of vascular tissue.
pomea simple, fleshy fruit with a soft exterior and papery or cartilaginous carpels.
poricidalopening or dehiscing by pores.
posterioron the side nearest the axis and thus appearing at the back.
poucha bag-like cavity.
pricklerobust, pointed structure with swollen base arising directly from the epidermis; hence prickle-teeth.
primocanethe vigorous, first year non-flowering stems of Rubus.
procumbenttrailing or lying over or along the ground.
producedextended beyond.
proliferousproducing offshoots or buds capable of growing into new plants.
prolonged, prolongationextending beyond the ultimate spikelet of an inflorescence (rachis prolongation), or floret of a spikelet (rachilla prolongation).
prophyllthe first leaf of an innovation usually reduced to a short bi-keeled sheath.
prostratelying flat on the ground.
protandrouswith the anthers shedding pollen before the stigma is receptive.
prothallusa small body produced by the germinating spore and bearing sexual organs, the gametophytic generation of pteridophytes.
protogynouswith stigma emerged and receptive before the emergence of anthers.
protostelea stem structure characterised by a solid central core of vascular tissue.
provenanceThe wild geographical origin of a plant in cultivation.
proximalat the attached end of an organ as opposed to its free or distal end.
proximatetowards the attached end of an organ.
pruinosebearing a waxy bloom on the surface.
pseudanthiuma reduced or partial inflorescence simulating a single flower; as in Centrolepidaceae.
pseudo-prefix meaning false.
pseudobulba thickened, bulb-like portion of an aerial stem.
pseudopetiolatefalsely petiolate.
pteridophytescollective term for ferns and lycophytes.
puberulent, puberulouscovered with exceedingly fine, short, dense hairs.
pulvinatecushion-shaped; growing in dense cushions.
pulvinusa swelling or cushion at an axis often causing reflexed or deflexed branches, pedicels, or spikelets; hence pulvinate.
punctatewith dot-like markings often because of glands or wax; hence punctiform; diminutive punctulate.
pungentending in a stiff sharp point; or with sharp-tasting sap.
pustularbearing minute blister-like processes.
pyramidalresembling a pyramid.
pyrenea seed with a bony endocarp, usually several in a fleshy fruit.
pyriformpear-shaped.
quadrangularfour-angled.
quadratesquare.
quadrifariousarranged in four close-set rows along an axis, as leaves in Hebe species.
quasi-racemeresembling a raceme.
quinategrowing together in fives, from the same point.
racemean unbranched, ± elongate, indeterminate inflorescence with stalked flowers, those at the base the oldest; hence racemose.
racemoseforming a raceme.
rachillamain axis of a spikelet bearing the florets; associated with disarticulation between florets, sometimes prolonged beyond the ultimate floret.
rachis (pl. rachises)main axis of inflorescence or pinnate leaf; in ferns, the extension of the stipe as the axis of the lamina.
radiatediverging from or arranged around a common centre, as the spokes of a wheel; also, bearing ray florets, as in many Asteraceae.
radicalof leaves, arising from the stock or crown of a root, or from a rhizome.
radicantrooting, usually applied to stems or leaves.
radiclethe primary root of an embryo.
ramiflorousproducing flowers from branches.
raphides, rhaphidesbundles of crystals of calcium oxalate.
raya branch of an umbel or umbel-like inflorescence.
ray-floretsin Asteraceae, the outer florets of the capitulum when these are ligulate and distinct from the inner or disk-florets.
receptaclethe ± expanded end of the stem or flower-stalk on which the flower or flower-head is borne.
rectangularlonger than broad, with parallel margins and square ends; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
recurrentof flowering, continuing to bloom through the season after the initial flowering period, as in many roses.
recurvedcurved backward or downward.
reduplicatedoubled back, used of palm leaves where the pinnae are A-shaped in T.S.
reflexedbent sharply backwards.
regmaa dry dehiscent fruit of usually three (rarely more) cells, as in Euphorbiaceae.
regularsymmetric; of flowers radially symmetric or actinomorphic.
remotedistant.
reniformkidney-shaped.
repandshallowly sinuate.
repluma frame-like placenta from which the valves fall away in dehiscence, as in many Brassicaceae.
resinouscontaining or producing resin, and so sticky.
resupinatetwisted through 180°.
reticulatein the form of a network.
retinaculuma fibrous band holding parts together.
retroflexedbent back.
retrorsebent or facing backwards or downwards.
retuseslightly notched usually at an obtuse apex.
reversion shoota branch on an adult plant, bearing leaves of juvenile form.
revoluterolled outwards or to the lower (abaxial) side.
rhachisthe axis of an inflorescence or compound leaf; diminutive rhachilla, used especially of the axis of a spikelet.
rhizomatousgrowing from a rhizome.
rhizomea ± horizontal underground stem; hence rhizomatous.
rhombicdiamond-shaped; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2; hence rhomboidal.
ribmain or prominent nerves on leaf-blade; hence ribbed.
rootthe descending axis of the plant, initially developing from the radicle.
rootcrownthe part of the stem at the ground surface.
rootstocka short erect underground stem; the tissue at the junction of the root and the stem, sometimes referred to as a crown.
rosettea group of organs radiating from a centre; used especially where the lowest internodes of a stem are very short with numerous, ± overlapping leaves which may be ± appressed to the soil.
rostelluma small beak; used especially for a sterile process of the stigmatic area in orchids.
rostratebeaked.
rotatewheel-shaped, radiately spreading in one plane; of a sympetalous corolla with spreading lobes and absent or very short tube.
rotundrounded, nearly circular.
ruderalgrowing in waste places.
rudimentaryarrested at an early stage of development.
rufousof reddish colour.
rugosewrinkled; hence diminutive rugulose.
ruminateof irregular mottled appearance.
runcinatedeeply and rather sharply lobed, with the lobes directed backwards.
runnera slender, ± prostrate or arching lateral stem rooting at the nodes.
rupestralgrowing on rocks.
saca pouch-like structure; e.g. pollen-sac.
sagittatein the form of an arrowhead with the basal lobes pointing downward or concavely toward the stalk.
salinesalty, pertaining to salt marshes.
salverformof a gamopetalous corolla with a ± long slender tube abruptly expanded into a flat limb.
samaraa dry indehiscent 1-seeded winged fruit.
saprophytea plant that obtains its food from dead organic matter; hence saprophytic.
sarmentoseproducing long flexuous runners or stolons.
satinyof an indumentum of fine silky hairs closely appressed to form a complete, very smooth and ± shining cover.
scabrid, scabrousrough to the touch because of minute harsh projections; diminutive scaberulous, scabridulous.
scalein seed plants, any small, ± leaf-like organ, often dry and membranous; in ferns, a flattened outgrowth from the epidermis > one cell wide.
scandentclimbing, usually without special climbing organs.
scapea ± elongate bracteate or ebracteate peduncle arising from the crown of a plant with basal leaves only; hence scapose, like a scape.
scariousvery thin, dry and ± translucent.
schizocarpa dry fruit splitting into 1-seeded halves when ripe.
sclerenchymasubepidermal abaxial thickened fibrous tissue of leaf-blade, often in separate strands or continuous or nearly so, sometimes in ribs (costal sclerenchyma).
sclerotichardened, stony in texture.
scorpioidof a cymose inflorescence, with the young axis coiled like the tail of a scorpion.
scrambleran unspecialised climber, not usually reaching a great height.
screeloose, ± moving, stony debris or colluvium.
scrobiculatemarked by minute depressions.
scrubvegetation in which shrubs form a dense canopy,
scurfywith scale-like or bran-like particles.
scutateshield-shaped.
sectionin taxonomy, a subdivision of a subgenus.
secundone-sided, with all the flowers, leaves or other parts appearing to be arranged along one side of the axis; as flowers in Freesia.
seedthe reproductive body formed from a fertilised ovule.
segmentan individual free part of an organ.
self-compatiblesetting seeds after self-pollination; hence self-compatibility.
self-incompatibleunable to set seeds after self-pollination; hence self-incompatibility.
selfingof pollination and fertilization within one plant.
semi-half, in part.
sensitiveresponding to stimulation.
sepalone separate part of a calyx of free members, especially when green and ± leaf-like; hence sepaloid.
septatedivided by partitions.
septate-noduloseof leaves and sheaths in which the cellular cross-walls cutting across the longitudinal air tubes are very thick and clearly visible externally.
septicidaldividing along a septum; of dehiscence of fruits, by the breaking apart of the fused carpel walls that form the septa between loculi.
septifragalof dehiscence of fruits, when the valves break away from the septa.
septum(-a)a partition or cross-wall.
seriatearranged in a series.
sericeoussilky; clad in soft, simple, ± appressed hairs.
serotinousproduced late in the season.
serratewith sharp teeth pointing to the apex; diminutive  serrulate.
serrulatewith fine sharp teeth pointing toward the apex
sessilewithout a stalk.
seta(-ae)a fine bristle-like structure; hence setaceous.
setaceousbearing fine bristle-like structures.
sheatha ± tubular structure enclosing an organ or part.
sheath-bladeleaf-blade of a culm leaf; see also culm-sheath.
shruba woody plant of not very large size and lacking a distinct trunk.
sigmoidcurved like a S.
siliceouscontaining minute particles of silica.
silicifiedimpregnated with silica.
siliquea capsule, usually 2-locular, with two valves falling away from a frame (replum) bearing the seeds, as in Brassicaceae; hence siliquiform; diminutive silicle, used when length is not or little > 3× width.
silkywith a covering of very fine, ± appressed, lustrous hairs.
simpleundivided, unbranched, not consisting of several similar separate parts; cf. compound.
sinuatewith a strongly wavy margin.
sinuouswith shallow broad waves.
sinusthe space or recess between two lobes or segments.
siphonostelea stem structure characterized by a tubular vascular region surrounding a central pith.
smoothused to indicate the absence of asperities, teeth, roughness.
solitaryborne singly.
sordidof an impure or dirty white appearance.
sorus(-i)a cluster of sporangia, as in most ferns.
spadixa spicate inflorescence with relatively bulky, often succulent axis, usually subtended by a spathe; as in Araceae.
spathea large bract ± enclosing an inflorescence, often coloured when surrounding a spadix; hence spathaceous.
spathe-valvesbracts enclosing inflorescence or portion of inflorescence.
spathulatespoon-shaped.
speciesa taxon comprising one or more populations of individuals capable of interbreeding to form fertile offspring, usually morphologically distinct.
sphericalof a solid body, circular in transverse section.
spicatebearing a spike.
spiciformwith the form, but not necessarily the structure, of a spike.
spikean unbranched, ± elongate, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets, those at the base the oldest; hence spicate.
spikeleta small spike, sometimes including only one flower.
spinea stout process with a sharp point; hence diminutive spinule, spinulose.
sporangiophorea stalk bearing a sporangium.
sporangium(-ia)a sac or other structure containing spores.
sporea simple, asexual, usually 1-celled reproductive body, as in ferns.
sporocarpa thick-walled body containing sporangia.
sporophylla ± modified leaf-like structure bearing sporangia.
sporophytethe plant which bears not sexual organs but asexual spores; in lycophytes and ferns the ordinary plant; in seed plants the whole plant except the embryo sac and pollen grain.
sporta plant or part of a plant exhibiting abnormal variation, often as a result of somatic mutation, often used to produce new cultivars.
sporta plant or part of a plant exhibiting abnormal variation, often as a result of somatic mutation, often used to produce new cultivars.
spreadingextended laterally, of trees with broad crown.
spuran outgrowth from a scale-like leaf.
squama(-ae)a rather coarse scale; hence squamose, squamulose.
squamosecovered with scales; squamulose, covered with small scales.
squarrosewith spreading or projecting points.
stamena pollen-bearing organ, composed of an anther with pollen-sacs and its supporting stalk or filament.
staminode(s)a barren stamen, usually lacking an anther, and sometimes petaloid.
standardthe usually broad upper or adaxial petal of a legume flower.
standardsthe narrow, erect or ascending inner perianth-segments of an Iris flower as opposed to the broader, often drooping falls.
stellatestar-shaped or with several branches radiating from a single point.
sterilenot producing seed, spores or pollen capable of germination.
stigmathe part of the carpel that is receptive to pollen, usually found at or near the tip of the style; hence stigmatose.
stigma-stylesunited organs of gynoecium which receive pollen and transmit pollen tubes towards the egg apparatus; hence stigmatic.
stipea stalk, often short, minute; hence stipitate; in ferns, the portion of the midrib between the rhizome and the junction of the lowermost pair of primary pinnae (pinnate frond), or the junction with the lowermost green laminal tissue (entire or pinnatifid frond).
stipelthe stipule subtending a leaflet; hence stipellate.
stipitatewith a short stalk.
stipuleone of a pair of scale-like or leaf-like appendages at the base of a petiole, sometimes ± adnate to the petiole, sometimes connate with the stipule of the opposite leaf.
stockthe tissue at the junction of the root and the stem, sometimes referred to as a crown or rootstock.
stolona stem, ± horizontal or arched or running along the ground, rooting and usually capable of forming a new plant at its tip; hence stoloniferous.
stoloniferousproducing stolons.
stoma(-ata)a pore in the epidermis, usually of distinctive shape, through which gases diffuse.
stomiumthe part of the sporangium wall in ferns that ruptures during dehiscence.
stramineousstraw-like or straw-coloured.
striatewith fine longitudinal lines or ridges; hence diminutive striolate, with finer lines or ridges.
strictupright, straight, ± rigid.
strigosecovered with appressed, rigid, bristle-like, straight hairs.
strobilus(-i)a cone-like structure containing reproductive organs, as in lycopophytes and pines; hence strobilate.
strophiolean aril-like but hard appendage of a seed, at or near the micropyle; hence strophiolate.
strumaa cushion-like swelling on an organ.
stylethe ± elongated part of the carpel between the ovary and the stigma.
style-baseenlarged base of style which becomes hard and persistent in some genera of Cyperaceae.
style-brancha division of a divided style.
stylopodiuman enlarged basal part of a style, as in many Apiaceae.
sub-prefix meaning somewhat, slightly, or not quite.
subalpinethe altitudinal zone immediately below the climatic timberline .
suberosecorky in texture.
subgenusa subdivision of a genus.
submersedgrowing under water.
subshruba small plant with stems ± woody towards the base.
subspeciesa subdivision of a species.
substratumthe underlying layer; the base to which a plant is fixed.
subtendstand below, but usually close to, another organ, as a bract to its flower; hence subtended.
subulatetapering from a wider base to a sharp apex.
succulentfleshy; composed of soft watery tissue.
suckerleafy shoot of subterranean origin; hence suckering.
suffrutescentslightly woody at base with herbaceous shoots.
sulcatewith longitudinal grooves, less pronounced than furrowed.
sulcusa small furrow; hence sulcate.
summer-greengreen in summer, the aerial parts dying away before winter.
superficialoccuring on the surface of an organ, as in sori on a fern frond.
superiorsituated above another part; as in a calyx when it appears to spring from the top of an ovary; as in an ovary when free from the receptacle, with the perianth and stamens inserted below or around it.
superposedvertically over some other part.
suturea line or seam formed at the junction of two margins; used especially of dehiscent fruits.
swardshort ground cover, with lawn-like appearance.
symmetricalof stamens regularly arranged round the style.
sympatricof taxa having overlapping distributions.
sympetalousthe petals united, at least at the base.
sympodialgrowth continued by the activity of an axillary bud.
synandriuman androecium with the anthers coherent.
synangiuma concrescence of sporangia.
syncarpan ovary of two or more united carpels; hence syncarpous.
syncarpoushaving the carpels united to one another.
synchronousoccurring at the same time.
syngenesiouswith the anthers connate into a tube surrounding the style.
synonyma name which applies to the same taxon as another name.
syntypeany specimen cited in the protologue when no holotype was designated, or one of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as type.
tabularflattened horizontally.
tailedcaudate appendages of anthers.
talussloping mass of rock fragments, e.g. at the foot of a cliff.
taprootthe chief descending root.
tarna small mountain lake or pool.
tawnybrownish yellow, brownish orange, or tan-coloured.
taxon(-a)a taxonomic group of any rank, e.g. family, genus, species, variety.
taxonomythe study of classification.
tendrila slender twining part of a climbing plant formed from the whole or part of a stem or leaf; hence tendrilous.
tepalan individual glumaceous member of the perianth.
teratologythe study of malformations.
teretecircular in transverse section; either narrowly cylindrical or ± tapering.
terminalborne at the end of a stem and limiting its growth.
ternatewith the parts in threes, growing from the same point.
ternatifid, ternatisectdeeply divided or dissected into three lobes.
terrestrialplants living on land.
tessellateforming a lattice of cross-veins, especially in leaves of bamboos.
testathe outer coat of a seed.
tetra-prefix meaning four.
tetrada group of four, in angiosperms, of pollen cells or pollen grains.
tetradynamouswith six stamens, the two outer shorter than the four inner.
tetragonous4-angled; a solid, four-sided in section, with the angles rounded.
tetramerouswith organs or parts in fours.
tetrapterous4-winged.
thallusa plant body without differentiation into leaf and stem; hence thalloid, thallose.
thorna branchlet modified into a short hard sharp process.
throatthe opening of the corolla tube, the place where the limb joins the tube.
thyrsea compact, ± cone-shaped panicle; hence thyrsoid.
tillera side shoot.
tomentosecovered in a dense mat of soft hairs
tomentuma dense, ± matted covering of soft hairs; hence tomentose.
topotypea specimen from the type locality.
tortuoustwisting.
torulosecylindric or nearly so with constrictions or swellings at ± regular intervals.
trailinggrowing for some length over the ground, walls or banks.
translucentallowing passage of light but diffusing it.
transparenttransmitting light so that bodies beyond are completely visible.
transverseat right angles to an axis.
transversely-qualifying term used with elliptic, oblong, obovate, obtriangular, obtrullate, ovate, rhombic, triangular and trullate to indicate a shape broader than long (length:breadth 5:6 to 1:9).
treea woody plant with a distinct trunk or bole and ± elevated crown.
triangularlonger than broad, three-angled, broadest at the base; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2
trichomeany usually hair-like outgrowth of the epidermis.
trichotomousbranching almost equally into three parts.
tricolpatewith three grooves, of pollen grains.
tricuspid3-toothed.
tridentate3-toothed.
trifid, 3-fidsplit into three.
trifoliatehaving three leaves; diminutive trifoliolate, with three leaflets.
trifurcatehaving three forks or branches.
trigonousa solid, triangular in section, with the angles rounded.
triletehaving three scars or fissures on the spore wall, characteristic of tetrahedral pteridophyte spores.
trilocularhaving three locules.
trimerouswith organs or parts in threes.
trimorphicoccurring in three forms.
tripinnate, 3-pinnatethree times pinnate, with the secondary pinnae divided to the midrib into tertiary pinnae or segments.
tripinnatifid, 3-pinnatifidwith primary segments divided in a pinnate fashion into secondary and tertiary segments, but none divided to the midrib.
tripletsin threes.
triquetrousa solid, triangular in section, with angles sharp, faces ± concave.
triseptatehaving three septa.
tristichousin three vertical ranks; used of leaf arrangement.
tristyloushaving a floral trimorphism in which the anthers and stigmas vary in height among morphs so that the sequence of heights is different in each morph.
trullateangular-ovate; longer than broad, broadest below the middle, but angular in outline; length:breadth 2.5:1 to 3:2.
trulliformshaped like a brick-layer's trowel.
truncateappearing as though cut squarely across.
trunkthe main woody supporting stem of a tree.
tubea hollow cylinder; diminutive tubule.
tubera thickened, usually subterranean part of a stem or root, often asymmetrically swollen; hence tuberous.
tuberclea small wart-like swelling; hence tubercled, tubercular, tuberculate.
tuberculatehaving tubercles
tunica loose membrane investing a corm or bulb; hence tunicate.
turbinatetop-shaped.
turgidswollen or fully inflated.
turiona young sucker or shoot capable of generating a new plant.
tussockgrass-like plant with dense tufted habit.
twiga young woody stem, usually the current season's growth of a branch.
typea nomenclatural type is that element or representative to which the name of the taxon is permanently attached.
type speciesthe species on which the genus is based.
type specimenthe single specimen, gathering or illustration to which the name of a species, or taxon below the rank of species, is permanently attached.
type varietythe variety including the type of the species.
ultramaficparent material of rocks or soils with high iron and magnesium content.
ultramafic screescree formed by the erosion of ultramafic rocks.
umbelan indeterminate inflorescence sometimes flat-topped, with pedicels arising from a common centre, often umbrella-shaped; hence umbellate.
umbellatein the form of an umbel.
umboa small conical projection from the surface, particularly of gymnosperm cones; hence umbonate.
umbonatebearing a protuberance in the centre.
unarmeddevoid of spines, hooks or prickles.
unawnedlacking an awn or bristle.
uncinatehooked obtusely at the tip.
undulatehaving a wavy margin.
unguiculatecontracted at the base into a claw.
unilabiate1-lipped.
unilateralone-sided.
unilocularhaving a single cavity; used of ovaries.
uniseriatearranged in a single row or series.
unisexualof one sex only.
unispicateof an inflorescence consisting of a solitary spike.
unitubularhaving a single tube.
urceolateurn-or pitcher-shaped.
utriclea thin, loose but rather hard cover enveloping some fruits.
valvate, valvarof dehiscing fruits, opening by valves; of perianth segments in bud meeting at the edges but not overlapping.
variegatedstriped or blotched with various colours; usually of leaves.
varietyan infraspecific unit of classification.
vascularfurnished with specialised conducting tissues.
vascular bundleconducting tissue in leaf-blades.
vegetativeof non-sexual reproduction; or in the non-flowering state.
veina strand of conducting and usually strengthening tissue in a leaf or similar structure; in monocotyledons this term is commonly preferred for transverse strands, the longitudinal ones being called nerves.
velutinousvelvety.
venationthe arrangement of the veins.
ventralof the inner or lower surface of an organ; hence ventrally.
ventricoseswelling unequally on one surface.
vermiformworm-shaped.
vernationthe arrangement of leaves in the bud stage.
vernicoseshining, as though varnished.
verrucate, verrucosemarked with small wart-like excrescences; diminutive verruculose.
versatileof anthers attached to the filament at or near the middle and able to move freely.
verticela whorl of flowers, branches; hence verticillate.
verticillatearranged in a circle or whorl about an axis.
vesiclea small bladdery sac filled with gas or fluid; hence vesicular.
vestigialof a part now degenerate and non-functional.
vestiture, vesturea covering of any sort, usually hairs or modified hairs.
vexillaryof the broad upper petal in many legumes, especially with reference to the uppermost, often free, stamen.
vexillumthe usually broad upper or adaxial petal of a legume flower.
viableof spores, seeds, and pollen able to germinate.
villousclad in long soft hairs not matted together.
vineclimbing or trailing woody stemmed plant.
virgateelongated, straight, slender and pliant, or composed of twigs of this form.
viscid, viscoussticky.
viscidiumviscid or sticky area associated with the rostellum of an orchid flower.
vittaethe oil tubes embedded in the pericarp of the fruits of most Apiaceae.
vivipara young plant produced by the sprouting of a bud or seed while still attached to the parent plant.
warta swelling, or tubercle; hence warty.
weftan area of closely interwoven or matted together hairs.
whipcordof a flexible branch with appressed, imbricate scale-like leaves.
whorlan arrangement of three or more parts or organs at the same level round an axis; hence whorled.
winga thin membranous expansion of an organ or part; hence winged.
xeromorphicof plants adapted to dry conditions.
xerophilousgrowing in dry places.
zygomorphichaving only one plane of symmetry, irregular, as of flowers.